sonkeigo vs kenjougo vs teineigo : Didn’t You Get Confused?

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尊敬語そんけいご vs 謙譲語けんじょうご vs 丁寧語ていねいご: Didn’t You Get Confused?

What is the difference between “尊敬語そんけいご謙譲語けんじょうご, and 丁寧語ていねいご“? Could you use these words depending on what the situations are? After reading this, you would say “Yes” to this question. Let me introduce what their subtle differences are and how you correctly use them such as native speakers today!

尊敬語そんけいご (sonkeigo) / 謙譲語けんじょうご (kenjougo) / 丁寧語ていねいご (teineigo)

Honorific keigo / 尊他语, 自谦语, 礼貌用语 / 존댓말, 겸양어, 공손한 말 / Kính ngữ, Khiêm nhường ngữ, Thể lịch sự

尊敬語そんけいご” means “honorific language” and which has been used as the meaning of “to respect a person you are talking to”, so you can’t use them for yourself and is also known as “honorific keigo”. The tip of using it is used for “THEM” while talking to someone higher ranking than you such as your boss, customers, teachers, etc. For instance, “As you said ___ (あなたがおっしゃったように ___)”

謙譲語けんじょうご” means “humble language” and which has been used as the meaning of “to respect a person you are talking to”, so you have to use them for yourself and is also known as “humble keigo”. The tip of using it is used for “YOU” while talking to someone higher ranking than you such as your boss, customers, teachers, etc. For instance, “As I said ___ (わたしもうしたように ___)”

丁寧語ていねいご” means “polite language” and which has been used as the meaning of “to say something as being polite”, so you could use them for themselves and yourself and which is also known as “polite keigo”. The tip of using it is used for “BOTH THEM and YOU” while talking to someone higher ranking than you such as your boss, customers, teachers, etc. For instance, “As you said ___ (あなたがいましたように ___)” and “As I said ___ (わたしいましたように ___)”.

Lastly, “ご存知ぞんじだとおもいますが、明日あしたうかがいます。(As you alreadly know, but I am going to go there.)”: “ご存知ぞんじ” is “尊敬語そんけいご(sonkeigo)” because ‘As “YOU” already know’ means about “HIS/HER” and, “うかがう” is “謙譲語けんじょうご(kenjougo)” because “I AM going to go there” means about “YOU”.

Here is the list of what native speakers would use “尊敬語そんけいご謙譲語けんじょうご and 丁寧語ていねいご

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dictionary form尊敬語そんけいご(sonkeigo)謙譲語けんじょうご(kenjougo)丁寧語ていねいご(teineigo)
(to say)おっしゃる、われるもうす、もうげるいます
(to come)いらっしゃる、おいでになる、見える、お越しになるまいる、うかがます
(to go)いらっしゃる、おいでになるうかがう、まいきます
(to know)りになる、ごぞんじだぞんじる、ぞんげる、承知しょうちするっています
べる(to eat)がるいただく、頂戴ちょうだいするべます
いる(to be)いらっしゃる、おいでになるおるいます
(to look/ to watch)らんになる拝見はいけん
する
ます
(to listen)きになる拝聴はいちょうする、うかがうきます
(to buy)いになる、おもとめになるわせていただくいます
すわ(to sit)けになるすわらせていただくすわります
(to see / to meet)いになる、われるにかかるいます
わかる(to understand)おわかりになる、ご理解りかいいただくかしこまる、承知しょうちするわかります
(to read)みになる拝読はいどくするみます
つたえる(to tell)つたえになるもうつたえるつたえます

Sample

yuka

がりますか? (Could you have this?) (您要吃吗?) (드시겠습니까?) (Ngài có muốn dùng không ạ?)

tatsuya

いただいていいですか? (Could I have this?) (我真的可以收下吗?) (받아도 괜찮을까요?) (Tôi có thể nhận không ạ?)

yuka

これから夕食ゆうしょくべます。 (I’ll have dinner from now on.) (现在要去吃晚饭。) (지금부터 저녁을 먹습니다.) (Tôi chuẩn bị ăn tối.)

tatsuya

存知ぞんじだとおもいますが、明日あしたうかがいます。 (As you already know, but I am going to go there.) (您或许已经得知,我明天将前去拜访。) (아실거라고는 생각합니다만, 내일 뵙겠습니다.) (Có thể ngài đã biết, ngày mai tôi sẽ đến ạ.)

yuka

明日あした、こちらにおいでになるなんてぞんじませんでした。 (I didn’t know that you are going to come here.) (我还不知道明天是否会来这里。) (내일, 이 곳에 오실 거라고는 생각지도 못했습니다.) (Tôi đã không biết là ngày mai ngài sẽ đến đây.)

tatsuya

ぼく明日あした予定よていっていますが、っていますか? (I know the schedule tomorrow, but do you know that?) (我知道明天的行程安排,你知道吗?) (저는 내일 일정을 알고 있지만, 알고 계시나요?) (Tôi đã biết lịch trình của ngày mai, còn bạn đã biết chưa?)

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