“miman” vs. “ika”:Perfect Guide For You to Use Them

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miman” vs. “ika“:Perfect Guide For You to Use Them

What is the difference between “未満みまん(miman) and 以下いか(ika)”? Which is a more natural Japanese? After reading this, you would be answering this question. Let me introduce what their subtle differences are and how you correctly use them such as native speakers today!

A未満みまん (miman)

Less than A, Below A, Under A / 不到 / 미만 / chưa đủ…

“A未満みまん (miman)” means “Less than A, Below A Or Under A” and which has been used as the meaning of “a smaller number or amount than A”. The basic way to use it is “A未満みまん(Less than A / Below A)”, etc. For instance, “1年未満いちねんみまん(less than 1 year)”, “2時間未満にじかんみまん(less than 2 hours)”, “30日未満さんじゅうにちみまん(less than 30 days)”, etc. The tips for using it are that “A未満みまん” DOES NOT INCLUDE A. Everybody could use “未満みまん” in daily conversations as casual and in business situations as formal such as “1年未満いちねんみまんだよ。(It’s less than 1 year.)” as casual and “1年未満いちねんみなんです。(It’s less than 1 year.)” as formal and which is used as polite. Lastly, “2時間未満にじかんいか(less than 2 hours)” means “1.5, 1, 0.5 … hours”, “30日未満さんじゅうにちみまん(less than 30 days)” means “29, 28, 27, 26 …. days”, etc.

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Sample

yuka

目的地もくてきち現在地げんざいちから2キロ未満みまんです。 (The destination is less than 2 kilometers of where we are.) (目的地距离当前的位置不到2公里。) (목적지는 현 위치로부터 2킬로미터 미만입니다.) (Điểm đến cách vị trí hiện tại của bạn chưa tới 2 km.) (mokutekichi wa genzaichi kara ni kiro miman desu.)

tatsuya

3歳さんさい未満みまん子供こども無料むりょうだよ。 (It’s free for children under the age of 3.) (3岁以下的儿童免费。) (3세 미만의 어린이는 무료야.) (Trẻ em dưới 3 tuổi được miễn phí đấy.) (san sai miman no kodomo wa muryō dayo.)

yuka

みっ未満みまんしかえないんだー。 (We can buy it only less than 3.) (只能买不到3个。) (3개 미만으로 밖에 살 수 없는 건가.) (Tôi chỉ có thể mua dưới 3 cái thôi.) (mittsu miman shika kae nai nda-.)

tatsuya

みの手荷物てにもつななキロ未満みまんじゃないとダメだよ。 (Carry-on baggage must be less than 7 kilos.) (手提行李必须少于7公斤。) (기내 수하물은 7킬로그램 미만이 아니면 안돼.) (Hành lý xách tay mà không dưới 7 cân là không được đâu đấy.) (mochikomi no tenimotsu wa na nakiro miman janaito dame dayo.)

A以下いか (ika)

A or less, A or below, Within A, Up to A / 以下 / 이하 / dưới,nhỏ hơn…

“A以下いか (ika)” means “A or less, A or below, Within A Or Up to A” and which has been used as the meaning of “a smaller number or amount than A”. The basic way to use it is “A以下いか(A or less)”, etc. For instance, “1年以下いちねんいか(1 year or under)”, “2時間以下にじかんいか(2 hours or less)”, “30日以下さんじゅうにちいか(30 days or less)”, etc. The tips for using it are that “A以下いか” INCLUDES A. Everybody could use “以下いか” in daily conversations as casual and in daily conversations as formal such as “1年以下いちねんいかだよ。(It’s 1 year or under.)” as casual and “1年以下いちねんいかです。(It’s 1 year or less.)” as formal and which is used as polite. Furthermore, “2時間以下にじかんいか(2 hours or less)” means “2, 1 …. hours”, “30日以下さんじゅうにちいか(30 days or less)” means “30, 29, 28, 27 …. days”, etc. Lastly, “以内いない” is used for the distance.

Sample

yuka

目的地もくてきち現在地げんざいちから2キロ以内いないです。 (The destination is within 2 kilometers of where we are.) (目的地距离当前的位置不到2公里。) (목적지는 현 위치로부터 2킬로미터 이내입니다.) (Điểm đến cách vị trí hiện tại trong phạm vi 2 kilômét.) (mokutekichi wa genzaichi kara ni kiro inai desu.)

tatsuya

3歳さんさい以下いか子供こども無料むりょうだよ。 (Children of three years or under are free.) (3岁及以下的儿童免费。) (3세 이하의 어린이는 무료야.) (Trẻ em từ 3 tuổi trở xuống được miễn phí đấy.) (san sai ika no kodomo wa muryō dayo.)

yuka

みっ以下いかしかえないんだー。 (We can buy it only up to 3.) (我只买三个或更少。) (3개 이하로밖에 살 수 없어.) (Tôi chỉ có thể mua từ 3 cái trở xuống.) (mittsu ika shika kaenai nda-.)

tatsuya

みの手荷物てにもつななキロ以下いかじゃないとダメだよ。 (Carry-on baggage must be up to 7 kilos.) (手提行李必须少于7公斤。) (기내 수하물은 7킬로 이하가 아니면 안돼.) (Hành lý xách tay mà không dưới 7 cân là không được đâu đấy.) (mochikomi no tenimotsu wa nana kiro ika janaito dame dayo.)

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