慎む”tsutsu shimu” vs. 謹む”tsutsu shimu”: They Sound Absolutely Same But..
What is the difference between “慎む(tsutsu shimu) and 謹む(tsutsu shimu)”? When you abstain from alcohol, which should you use: “慎む or 謹む”? After reading this, you would be answering this question. Let me introduce what their subtle differences are and how you correctly use them such as native speakers today!
慎む (tsutsu shimu)
Abstain/Refrain / 慎重 / 삼가다 / ngừng
“慎む (tsutsu shimu)” means “Abstain” and which has been used as the meaning of “to not do something, especially something enjoyable that you think might be bad or to avoid doing or stop yourself from doing something:”. The basic way to use it is “___は/が___を慎む”. For instance, “私は食事を慎む(I abstain from eating meat.)”, “私はお酒を慎む(I abstain from eating meat.)”, “私はビデオ撮影を慎む(I Refrain from taking videos.)”. We use “Abstain and Refrain” as the same meaning. Furthermore, “慎む” is pretty formal, so native speakers prefer “控える”.
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私語は慎んでください。 (Please refrain from talking about your private life.) (请不要私下交谈。) (사담은 삼가해주세요.) (Ngừng nói chuyện riêng lại đi!)
健康を大切するためにお酒を慎んでるよ。 (I’m abstaining from alcohol in order to focus on my health.) (为了保持身体健康，我在控制饮酒量。) (건강을 소중히하기 위해 술은 자제하고 있어.) (Tớ đang ngưng uống rượu để bảo vệ sức khoẻ đấy.)
入院中はたばこを慎むべきね！ (You gotta abstain from smoking while being hospitalized.) (在入院期间需要戒烟哦！) (입원 중에는 담배를 자재해야 해!) (Khi đang nhập viện thì phải ngừng hút thuốc đó!)
健康に良くないし甘いもの食べるのを慎むね。 (I’m abstaining from eating sweets because it’s bad for my heart.) (甜食对身体不是很好，还是少吃点吧。) (건강에 좋지도 않고 단걸 먹는 건 자제해.) (Đồ ngọt không tốt cho sức khoẻ nên tớ sẽ ngừng ăn.)
謹む (tsutsu shimu)
Respectfully/Cordially, etc / 谨慎 / 자제하다 / Trân trọng
“謹む (tsutsu shimu)” means “Respectfully, So sorry, etc” and which has been used as the meaning of “the way that shows you want to be polite or honor someone”. The basic way to use it is “謹んで___”. For instance, “謹んで、お悔やみ申し上げます。(I’m so sorry to hear about your loss.)”, 謹んで、ご冥福をお祈り申し上げます。(We would like to offer our deepest sympathy.), etc. This is used as a formal meaning in business situations.
謹んで、ご冥福をお祈り申し上げます。 (We would like to offer our deepest sympathy.) (祈愿逝者安息。) (삼가 명복을 빕니다.) (Với tất cả sự tôn trọng, tôi xin cầu nguyện cho linh hồn của bạn.)
謹んで、お悔やみ申し上げます。 (I’m so sorry to hear about your loss.) (请节哀顺变。) (삼가, 조의를 표합니다.) (Tôi xin bày tỏ sự tiếc thương sâu sắc.)
パーティーに謹んで招待申し上げます。 (We would like to cordially invite you to a party.) (诚挚邀请您参加本次派对。) (파티에 삼가 초대 부탁드립니다.) (Tôi xin trân trọng mời bạn đến dự tiệc.)
謹んでお知らせします。 (We are pleased to tell you.) (很遗憾地通知您。) (삼가 알려드립니다.) (Tôi xin trân trọng thông báo.)
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